Oil companies are spending billions of dollars trying to make their products more environmentally friendly and to develop new ways to extract oil from oil shale.
But there are plenty of places where the chemicals used to make the oils are toxic and the chemicals in them are far more dangerous than they appear.
The chemicals used in the industry are often made with chemicals which contain carcinogens and which can cause birth defects and cancers.
The world’s largest oil producer BP has been found guilty of illegally dumping thousands of tonnes of cancer-causing waste in a landfill in Louisiana.
And in March this year, a major British oil company was fined £7m by the UK’s Competition Commission for a range of environmental offences.
What’s more, oil companies are increasingly using chemical pesticides which are widely known to be toxic.
Here are the main chemicals used by oil companies in their production.
Chemical pesticides: Synthetic chemicals are chemicals which are manufactured using chemicals which have been sprayed with chemicals known to cause cancer.
They are often sprayed in the form of a compound called a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) such as paraquat.
The PAH is often found in food products such as cheese, butter, meat, salad dressings and other foodstuffs.
PAHs have been linked to increased cancer risk, heart disease and birth defects in animals.
Many PAH pesticides are classified as carcinogenic to humans.
But the chemicals themselves are not carcinogenic, because they have no known effects on humans.
They do, however, make it harder for people to absorb and metabolise PAH.
The chemical pesticides are known to contain pesticides which can have cancer-like effects.
Some of these pesticides can be absorbed into the bloodstream, where they can become active in the liver, kidneys and other organs.
Some are also toxic to fish and other animals.
For example, an insecticide called pyrethroids is commonly used to control pest populations in fruit and vegetable fields.
This insecticide is not considered to be a carcinogen and is therefore allowed in food production.
But some insecticides, such as those used to kill the yellow fever virus, have also been linked with cancer in animals and humans.
Some other pesticides used to treat crops, such sprays of insecticides called pyresor, are known carcinogens.
A chemical that is used in some insecticidal sprays may be carcinogenic if eaten.
But this depends on the insecticide being used.
Oxidants: These are chemicals that are used in pesticides to kill or damage plants and animals.
Oxidation occurs when a compound is oxidised, meaning it is damaged.
Oxides can be used to bleach water, as a paint thinner or as an ingredient in cooking.
Some Oxidizing compounds can be toxic to humans, including formaldehyde, a known carcinogen.
Oxide chemicals can also damage the DNA of plants, such making it more likely that they will become toxic to animals and plants, or cause other damage.
Oxida chemicals can be harmful to fish.
For more information, see our page on Oxidizers.
Phosphorus: Phosphates are a group of chemical compounds which are used as chemical stabilisers in the production of chemicals, especially in fertilisers, pesticides, disinfectants and in pharmaceuticals.
They act to reduce the pH of a chemical by increasing the rate of hydrogen bonding, or hydrogen bonding of a molecule.
Phases of chemical reaction are called reactions, and they take place at a certain point in time.
The rate at which hydrogen bonding takes place in a chemical reaction depends on a chemical’s chemical structure.
For instance, a molecule of hydrogen bonded to a carbon atom will have a specific molecular weight.
This is because each atom of hydrogen bonds to a different carbon atom, and each molecule of the same chemical has different molecular weights.
If the molecular weights are different, then the molecular bond will be broken.
A phosphate will also bond to a molecule with a different chemical weight than the one it is attached to.
For some chemicals, such acids and bases, the bonds between the molecules are so weak that the bonds break, so the molecule is considered a stable molecule.
Oxysol: Oxysols are used to bind and dissolve minerals, such concrete, in the environment.
For this reason, many of these chemicals are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as ‘probable human carcinogens’.
Oxysomes are also used in cleaning fluids and lubricants.
Some oxysol-containing products, such cleaning products, are not recommended for people who have a predisposition to breast cancer.
Oxyresol: Oxyresol is a chemical that occurs naturally in the earth, and is found in the soil.
Oxyresols are generally used in agricultural chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides.
Oxydesol: A common chemical used in cosmetic formulations, is also a potential carcinogen because it is known to form reactive